دانش آموزان عزیز سلام
من فرشید کامرانی فارغ التحصیل مهندسی برق دانشگاه صنعتی شریف هستم.
در این مطلب قراره یک متن انگلیسی کار کنیم تا با سوالات قسمت ریدینگ برای کنکور بیشتر آشنا شویم.
چند نکته لازم است قبل از خواندن و حل سوالات در نظر بگیرید:
در این مطلب هدف این است تا با متن سخت ریدینگ آشنا شویم و از آن نترسیم و دنبال کلید واژه ها برای حل سوالات باشیم.
✔ بعد از حل سوالات این متن متوجه خواهید شد که در این متن از کلمات و اسامی خاصی استفاده شده است که نیاز نیست معنی آن ها را به طور دقیق بدانیم.
برای دانش آموزانی که دنبال چالش برای مبحث ریدینگ هستند این متن به شدت توصیه می شود.
قبل از خواندن این متن، برای آشنایی با نحوه حل سوالات ریدینگ مطلب زیر را پیشنهاد میکنم.
✔ درجه سختی متن زیر به چه صورت است؟
درجه سختی متن: سخت
درجه سختی سوالات: سخت
📌 برای مشاهده جواب ها همچنین نسخه پی دی اف این متن، فایل ضمیمه را دانلود نمایید.
📌 برای مشاهده و تمرین نمونه سوالات بیشتر ریدینگ، لیسنینگ، کلوز تست و ... می توانید از لینک زیر استفاده کنید:
From their discovery in 1609 until recently, lunar craters were almost unanimously thought to have volcanic origins, even though the topography of the Moon and its craters had been studied minutely by generations of observers. Dissenting voices, such as that of Robert Hooke, who postulated in 1665 that they were formed by the impact of meteors, did little to sway the majority opinion. The most serious challenge to the volcanic-formation hypothesis was made in 1893 by the geologist G. K. Gilbert. After analyzing the depth-to-diameter ratios of craters, Gilbert suggested that the craters could have been formed only by the impact of meteors. The central peaks that were commonly observed resulted from the rebound of rock, in a similar manner to liquids (think of drops of water hitting a puddle). Bright rays surrounded many craters that were formed from material flung out during the impact---impact ejecta. j
Although impacts with a surface can occur at all angles, from less than 5° to 90°, early experiments suggested that only vertical (90°) impacts were capable of producing circular craters. So the main argument against an impact mechanism for lunar crater formation was that only circular craters could be seen on the Moon. However, Gilbert himself showed that the average impact angle was 45° — in fact, very few impacts were close to vertical. j
In 1916 E J. Öpik published work that recognized that the impact of meteors at very high velocities would be fundamentally different from the impact at low velocities created in early laboratory experiments. Such high-velocity impacts would have a similar effect to an explosion and craters would be circular even at low impact angles. Nevertheless, the volcanic hypothesis remained intact, and there was significant unwillingness amongst the scientific community about accepting impact cratering. This began to change in the 1960s with the work of the American geologist Gene Shoemaker, who made a lifetime study of cratering. j
Q1- The word “Dissenting” in the passage is closest in meaning to: j
Q2- the author mentions “drops of water hitting a puddle” in the passage for which of the following reasons? j
A- To illustrate the behavior of liquids under pressure
B- To demonstrate the common eruption pattern of volcanoes
C- To help readers to perceive flaws in G. K. Gilbert’s ideas
D- To help readers imagine how lunar craters formed
Q3- According to paragraphs 1 and 2, which of the following seemed to disprove Gilbert’s theory of lunar crater creation? j
A- Only circular craters could be seen on the Moon. j
B- The impact of meteors striking the Moon could not be observed. j
C- Impact craters like those on Earth are not visible on the Moon. j
D- Materials surrounding the lunar craters were volcanic in origin. j
Q4- According to paragraph 3, what was W. J. Öpik’s contribution to the study of craters? j
A- Öpik‘s work disproved the idea that the average meteor impact angle on the Moon was 45o
B- Öpik’s work showed that circular craters could be formed by meteors impacting the Moon at low angles
C- Öpik’s work suggested that the craters on the Moon may have had several causes
D- Öpik’s work proved that only high-speed velocity impacts at 90o could have caused lunar craters
Q5- According to paragraph 3, which of the following best describe the impact of a meteor striking at a high velocity? j
A- It is similar in its effects to those of a low-velocity impact
B- It creates irregular craters at low impact angles
C- It causes a volcanic reaction
D- It has an effect similar to an explosion
برای ارتباط با پشتیبان ویژه و اطلاع از شرایط مشاوره با رتبه هاي برتركانوني به لينك زير مراجعه كنيد.